TLR

TLR

A group of proteins known as toll-like receptors (TLRs) are essential components of the innate immune system. They are single, membrane-spanning, non-catalytic receptors that recognize structurally conserved molecules derived from microbes and are typically expressed in sentinel cells like macrophages and dendritic cells. Once these microbes have gotten past physical barriers like the skin or mucosa of the gastrointestinal tract, TLRs recognize them and trigger immune cell responses.

TLR1 through TLR13 are among the TLRs, along with TLR2, TLR3, TLR4, TLR5, TLR6, TLR7, TLR8, TLR9, TLR10, TLR11, TLR12, and TLR13. Toll-Like Receptors (TLRs) are involved in both the detection of endogenous danger signals and the early innate immune response to encroaching pathogens. TLRs are homologs of the Drosophila Toll protein, which was found to be crucial for defense against microbial infection. They are evolutionarily conserved receptors. TLRs identify pathogen-associated microbial patterns (PAMPs), which are only expressed by microbial pathogens and are highly conserved structural motifs.

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