Reactive Oxygen Species

Reactive Oxygen Species

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are radical and non-radical oxygen species produced by the partial reduction of oxygen, including superoxide anion (O2-), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and hydroxyl radical (HO•). Endogenous ROS are produced by cells during their normal oxidative metabolism in the mitochondria as well as when they react to xenobiotics, cytokines, and bacterial invasion.

By directly inhibiting MAPK phosphatases, ROS also activates MAPK pathways. Through PTEN, ROS produced by growth factor stimulation are capable of reversibly controlling the redox state of the PI3K pathway. The cellular response to ROS may involve the activation of autophagy.

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