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    Synephrine HCl
    Synephrine HCl

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    This product is for research use only, not for human use. We do not sell to patients.
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    InvivoChem Cat #: V1139
    CAS #: 5985-28-4Purity ≥98%

    Description: Synephrine HCl (Sympatol; oxedrine), the hydrochloride salt of synephrine which is a naturally occuring protoalkaloid extracted from bitter orange and other citrus species, is commonly used for weight loss. Synephrine has also been widely used as an alternative to ephedrine. Products containing bitter orange or synephrine are suspected of causing adverse cardiovascular reactions. Synephrine can stimulate glucose consumption (Glut4-dependent glucose uptake) by stimulating AMPK activity, regardless of insulin-stimulated PI3 kinase-Akt activity in L6 skeletal muscle cells.

    References: Int J Med Sci. 2012;9(7):527-38; Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2012 Feb 24;418(4):720-4.

    Related CAS #: 5985-28-4 (HCl)   16589-24-5 (tartrate)   94-07-5 (racemate)   614-35-7 (R-isomer)    

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    Molecular Weight (MW)203.67
    FormulaC9H13NO2.HCl C9H13NO2 
    CAS No.5985-28-4
    Storage-20℃ for 3 years in powder form
    -80℃ for 2 years in solvent
    Solubility (In vitro)DMSO: 14 mg/mL (68.7 mM)
    Water: 41 mg/mL (201.3 mM) 
    Ethanol: 4 mg/mL (19.6 mM)
    Solubility (In vivo)Saline: 30 mg/mL 
    SynonymsSympatol; oxedrine

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    In Vitro

    In vitro activity: Synephrine (0.1-30 μM) displays potent vasoconstrictive effects on isolated rat aorta in a dose dependent manner, which can be significantly inhibited by pretreatment with prazosin, BRL15572, and ketanserin but not by pretreatment with SB216641 and propranolol, indicating that Synephrine exerts the constrictive effects via adrenergic alpha(1)-receptors, serotonergic 5-HT(1D) receptors, and 5-HT(2A) receptors. Although the Ki values of Synephrine, 1R,2S-norephedrine, and β-phenethylamine are same for all three subtypes, only Synephrine is a partial agonist of α1A-AR subtype stably expressed in HEK 293 cells with EC50 of 4 µM, giving a maximal response at 100 µM that is equal to 55.3 % of the L-phenylephrine maximum. Functional studies on the α2A- and α2C-AR subtypes stably expressed in CHO cells indicate that Synephrine may act as an antagonist rather than an agonist of the pre-synaptic α(2A)- and α(2C)-AR subtypes present in nerve terminals, although antagonist activity of synephrine is lower than its partial agonist potency. Synephrine (~100 μM) treatment increases basal glucose consumption up to 50% over the control in a dose-dependent manner, without affecting the viability of L6 skeletal muscle cells. Synephrine significantly stimulates the basal- or insulin-stimulated lactic acid production as well as glucose consumption. Synephrine treatment stimulates the phosphorylation of AMPK but not Akt, and Synephrine-induced glucose consumption and the translocation of Glut4 from the cytoplasm to the plasma membrane are sensitive to the inhibition of AMPK but not to the inhibition of PI3 kinase.

    In VivoAdministration of Synephrine (1 mg/kg per 12 hours) for 8 days significantly improves the hyperdynamic state in portal hypertensive rats induced by either partial portal vein ligation (PVL) or bile duct ligation (BDL), and significantly reduces the portal venous pressure, portal tributary blood flow and cardiac index in both PVL and BDL rats.  
    Animal modelMale Sprague-Dawley rats with portal hypertension (with or without cirrhosis) induced by bile duct ligation or partial portal vein ligation 
    Formulation & DosageDissolved in 0.1 N HCl; 1 mg/kg per 12 hours; Oral gavage

    Jpn J Pharmacol. 2001 Feb;85(2):183-8; J Pharmacol Sci. 2009 Sep;111(1):73-81. 

    These protocols are for reference only. InvivoChem does not independently validate these methods.


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