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    Lexibulin (CYT-997)
    Lexibulin (CYT-997)

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    This product is for research use only, not for human use. We do not sell to patients.
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    InvivoChem Cat #: V1622
    CAS #: 917111-44-5Purity ≥98%

    Description: CYT997 (also called Lexibulin) is a vascular disrupting agent and a potent microtubule polymerization inhibitor with IC50 of 10-100 nM in cancer cell lines. CYT997 (1 μM) treatment for 24 hours in A549 cells induces rapid reorganization of microtubules including the destruction of the existing microtubule network and accumulation of tubulin in plaques within the cytoplasm of some cells, leading to significant cell morphology alterations including the loss of adhesion and cell rounding. CYT997 displays potent cytotoxic activity against a range of 16 cancer cells with IC50 ranging from 9 nM for HepG2 to 101 nM for KHOS/NP.

    References: Mol Cancer Ther. 2009 Nov;8(11):3036-45; Invest New Drugs. 2011 Apr;29(2):232-8. 

    Related CAS: 917111-49-0 (HCl); 917111-44-5 (free base)

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    Molecular Weight (MW)434.53 
    FormulaC24H30N6O2 
    CAS No.917111-44-5 
    Storage-20℃ for 3 years in powder form
    -80℃ for 2 years in solvent
    Solubility (In vitro)DMSO: 86 mg/mL (197.9 mM)
    Water: <1 mg/mL
    Ethanol: 20 mg/mL (46.0 mM) 
    Other info

    Chemical Name: (S)-1-ethyl-3-(2-methoxy-4-(5-methyl-4-((1-(pyridin-3-yl)butyl)amino)pyrimidin-2-yl)phenyl)urea

    InChi Key: MTJHLONVHHPNSI-IBGZPJMESA-N

    InChi Code: InChI=1S/C24H30N6O2/c1-5-8-19(18-9-7-12-25-15-18)28-22-16(3)14-27-23(30-22)17-10-11-20(21(13-17)32-4)29-24(31)26-6-2/h7,9-15,19H,5-6,8H2,1-4H3,(H2,26,29,31)(H,27,28,30)/t19-/m0/s1

    SMILES Code: O=C(NC1=CC=C(C2=NC=C(C)C(N[[email protected]](C3=CC=CN=C3)CCC)=N2)C=C1OC)NCC

    Synonyms

    CYT997; CYT-997; CYT 997


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    In Vitro

    In vitro activity: CYT997 (1 μM) treatment for 24 hours in A549 cells induces rapid reorganization of microtubules including the destruction of the existing microtubule network and accumulation of tubulin in plaques within the cytoplasm of some cells, leading to significant cell morphology alterations including the loss of adhesion and cell rounding. CYT997 displays potent cytotoxic activity against a range of 16 cancer cells with IC50 ranging from 9 nM for HepG2 to 101 nM for KHOS/NP. Especially, CYT997 exhibits potent activity against HCT15 cells, known to possess the multidrug resistance mechanism Pgp (MDR+), with IC50 of 52 nM. Through inhibition of microtubule polymerization, CYT997 blocks the cell cycle at the G2-M boundary, and induces an increase in phosphorylated Bcl-2 and increased expression of cyclin B1, as well as caspase-3 activation and the generation of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase. CYT997 treatment causes a rapid and reversible increase in the permeability of HUVEC monolayers with IC50 of ~80 nM at 1 hour of exposure. Consistent with the disruption of cellular tubulin, CYT997 potently inhibits proliferation, induces cell cycle arrest and most importantly apoptosis of both human myeloma cell lines (HMCLs) and primary MM cells.


    Kinase Assay: The effect of CYT997 on microtubule polymerization is determined using conventional turbidimetric assay using bovine neuronal tubulin in which the assembly of microtubules is monitored by an increase in absorbance at 340 nm. Increasing concentrations of CYT997 is added to 100 μL of tubulin/GTP/glycerol. Turbidimetric assays of microtubule assembly is done by incubating bovine microtubule protein in cuvettes at 37 °C in a thermostatically controlled spectrophotometer measuring the change in absorbance at 340 nm over time in PEM buffer [80 nM PIPES (pH 6.9), 2 mM MgCl2, 0.5 mM EGTA, and 5% glycerol]. 


    Cell Assay: Cells are exposed to various concentrations of CYT997 for ~72 hours. Cell proliferation is assessed with either the Alamar blue or MTT assays. For MTT assays, 5 mg/mL of MTT is added to all wells, plates are incubated for 6 hours at 37 °C, and then lysis buffer is added (10% SDS in 0.01 N HCl) and absorbance is measured at 620 nm in a BMG Technologies Lumistar or Polarstar plate reader. For Alamar blue assays, Alamar blue (10 μL/well) is added to each well and the plates are incubated at 37 °C for 4 hours. The fluorescence is then measured using a fluorescence plate reader with an excitation filter at 544 nm and an emission filter at 590 nm. For cell cycle analysis, cells are fixed and permeabilized with 70% ethanol in PBS and incubated at 4 °C overnight. RNase-treated samples (10 μg RNase/mL for 20 minutes at 37 °C) are stained with propidium iodide (5 μg/mL) at 4 °C for a minimum of 10 minutes. Cell cycle variables are determined by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) analysis using a Beckman-Coulter Quanta SC MPL system and analyzed using CXP Software. For apoptosis analysis, cells are detached and collected. Annexin staining is done using the Vybrant Apoptosis Assay Kit. Cells are stored on ice and analyzed on a Beckman Coulter Quanta MPL within 1 hour of preparation. Annexin V–positive cells are determined using two-channel analysis.

    In VivoThe half-life of CYT997 for oral administration (2.5 hours) to rats is slightly longer than that for intravenous administration (1.5 hours), with the absolute oral bioavailability being 50% to 70%. Oral administration of CYT997 induces dose-dependent inhibition of tumor growth of PC3 xenografts in mice, more potently compared with paclitaxel. CYT997 is also effective in an orthotopic syngeneic model using the mouse breast cancer 4T1 cells, which are some refractory to Paclitaxel treatment. A single dose of CYT997 (7.5 mg/kg, i.p.) reduces tumor blood flow significantly at 6 hours in liver metastases, to a similar extent as the positive control CA4P dosed at 100 mg/kg. CYT997 treatment (15 mg/kg/day) significantly prolongs the survival in a murine model of aggressive systemic myelomatosis. 
    Animal modelMale nude mice inoculated s.c. with PC3 cells, and female BALB/c mice inoculated with 4T1 cells 
    Formulation & DosageFormulated in NMP/PEG300/saline; 30 mg/kg/day; p.o.
    References

    Mol Cancer Ther. 2009 Nov;8(11):3036-45; Invest New Drugs. 2011 Apr;29(2):232-8.  


    These protocols are for reference only. InvivoChem does not independently validate these methods.

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