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    InvivoChem Cat #: V3031
    CAS #: 1135797-91-9Purity ≥98%

    Description: SMART is a highly potent tubulin inhibitor with IC50 in the nanomolar range (20-30 nM) in a number various cancer cell lines including prostate cancer and melanoma cells. It is discovered by Dr. Duane D Miller's group in the University of Tennessee Health Science Center based on the structure of 2-aryl-thiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid amides (ATCAA), a chemical scaffold designed from lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) with a lipid chain in order to inhibit guanine-binding protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) signaling, which was involved in proliferation and survival of prostate cancer. SMART exerts the anticancer activity by binding to the colchicine binding site of tubulin and inhibiting the polymerization of microtubules, thereby resulting in the inhibition of cell division. 

    References:  2009 Mar 26;52(6):1701-11;  2011 Jul 14;54(13):4678-93.

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    Molecular Weight (MW)355.408
    CAS No.1135797-91-9
    Storage-20℃ for 3 years in powder form
    -80℃ for 2 years in solvent
    Solubility (In vitro)DMSO: soluble (>10 mM)
    Water:<1 mg/mL
    Ethanol: <1 mg/mL
    Solubility (In vivo)N/A

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    In Vitro

    In vitro activity: Bovine brain tubulin (0.4 mg) (Cytoskeleton, Denver, CO) was mixed with various concentrations (0.625-20 μM) of test compound and incubated in 120 μL of general tubulin buffer (80 mM PIPES, 2.0 mM MgCl2, 0.5 mM EGTA, pH 6.9, and 1 mM GTP). The absorbance of wavelength at 340 nm was monitored every 60 s for 20 min by the SYNERGY 4 microplate reader (Bio-Tek Instruments, Winooski, VT). The spectrophotometer was set at 37 °C for tubulin polymerization. The IC50 value was defined as the concentration which can inhibit 50% of microtubule polymerization.

    Cell Assay: Cell Culture and Cytotoxicity Assay of Melanoma. We examined the antiproliferative activity of the ATCAA and SMART analogues in one human melanoma cell line (A375) and one mouse melanoma cell line (B16-F1). We used activity on fibroblast cells as a control to determine the selectivity of these compounds against melanoma. A375 cells and B16-F1 cells were purchased from ATCC (American Type Culture Collection, Manassas, VA). Human dermal fibroblast cells were purchased from Cascade Biologics, Inc., Portland, OR. All cell lines were cultured in DMEM (Cellgro Mediatech, Inc., Herndon, VA), supplemented with 5% FBS (Cellgro Mediatech), 1% antibiotic/antimycotic mixture (Sigma-Aldrich, Inc., St. Louis, MO), and bovine insulin (5 μg/mL; Sigma-Aldrich). Cultures were maintained at 37 °C in a humidified atmosphere containing 5% CO2. Standard sulforhodamine B assay was used. Cells were exposed to a wide range of concentrations for 48 h in round-bottomed 96-well plates. Cells were fixed with 10% trichloroacetic acid and washed five times with water. After cells were air-dried overnight and stained with SRB solution, total proteins were measured at 560 nm with a plate reader. IC50 (i.e., concentration which inhibited cell growth by 50% of no treatment controls) values were obtained by nonlinear regression analysis with GraphPad Prism (GraphPad Software, San Diego,CA).

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     2009 Mar 26;52(6):1701-11. 

    These protocols are for reference only. InvivoChem does not independently validate these methods.


    Structures of LPA, ATCAA and SMART.   2009 Mar 26;52(6):1701-11. 


    Effect of 8f on tubulin assembly.  2009 Mar 26;52(6):1701-11. 



    SAR relationship of the SMART molecules.  2009 Mar 26;52(6):1701-11. 


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