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    Probenecid (Benemid)
    Probenecid (Benemid)

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    This product is for research use only, not for human use. We do not sell to patients.
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    InvivoChem Cat #: V1686
    CAS #: 57-66-9Purity ≥98%

    Description: Probenecid (Benemid; Probecid; Benecid; Benuryl; Probenecid Martec; Probalan) is an OAT (organic anion transport) inhibitor which has been used as a medication to increase uric acid excretion in the urine. It is mainly used for the treatment of gout and hyperuricemia. Probenecid is also a TRPV2 (transient receptor potential vanilloid 2) agonist and an inhibitor of TAS2R16. Probenecid has also been used to treat patients with renal impairment as it reduces the renal tubular excretion of other drugs.  

    References: Cell Calcium. 1989 Apr;10(3):171-80; Cardiovasc Toxicol. 2012 Mar;12(1):1-9. 

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    Molecular Weight (MW)285.36
    CAS No.57-66-9
    Storage-20℃ for 3 years in powder form
    -80℃ for 2 years in solvent
    Solubility (In vitro)DMSO: 57 mg/mL (199.7 mM)
    Water: <1 mg/mL
    Ethanol: 22 mg/mL (77.1 mM)
    Other infoChemical Name: 4-(dipropylsulfamoyl)benzoic acid
    InChi Code: InChI=1S/C13H19NO4S/c1-3-9-14(10-4-2)19(17,18)12-7-5-11(6-8-12)13(15)16/h5-8H,3-4,9-10H2,1-2H3,(H,15,16)
    SMILES Code: CCCN(CCC)S(=O)(=O)C1=CC=C(C=C1)C(=O)O
    SynonymsBenemid; Benecid; Benuryl; Probecid; Probenecid Martec; Probenecid 

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    In Vitro

    In vitro activity: Probenecid is able to prevent the efflux of calcium-sensitive fluorescent dyes during studies of cellular calcium mobilization. Probenecid (2.5 mM) is found to block the export of Fura-2 from 1321N1 astrocytoma cells, and does not change the basal calcium concentration or the muscarinic calcium response. Probenecid is a potent transient receptor potential vanilloid 2 (TRPV2) agonist. Probenecid selectively induces increase in intracellular Ca2+ influx in HEK293T cells transiently expressing exogenous TRPV2. Probenecid is able to interact with organic anion transporters (OAT). 0.1 mM Probenecid efficiently inhibits ATP-dependent active vesicular N-ethylmaleimide glutathione (NEM-GS) uptake by Human Multidrug Resistance Proteins 1 (MRP1) and MRP2. In isolated Sf9 cell membranes, Probenecid stimulates ATPase activity of MRP2 with approximate KACT of 250 μM, but inhibits ATPase activity of MRP1. Probenecid is an inhibitor of the hTAS2R16, hTAS2R38, and hTAS2R43 bitter taste receptors. 1 mM Probenecid attenuates saccharin-induced calcium flux responses of hTAS2R16 to near baseline levels. Probenecid dose-dependently inhibits hTAS2R16 (in the presence of 3 mM salicin) and hTAS2R38 (in the presence of 300 μM PTC). This activity is independent of Probenecid's activity as a transport inhibitor, but is concerning with Probenecid interaction with the receptor.

    Cell Assay: Probenecid is an inhibitor of organic anion transport, MRP and pannexin-1 channel. In MRP-overexpressing HL60/AR and H69/AR tumor cell lines, probenecid reversed resistance to daunorubicin (DNR) and vincristine (VCR) in a concentration-dependent way. In wild-type AML-2 cells, probenecid increased the MRP levels in a dose- and time-dependent way. In MRP-overexpressing AML cells, probenecid exhibited a significant chemosensitizing effect. These results suggested that probenecid functioned as an effective chemosensitizer of multidrug resistance (MDR) tumor cells but also an MRP activator.

    In VivoProbenecid is an inhibitor of organic transport in vivo. Probenecid is able to decrease the renal clearance of antibiotic, such as penicillin, which enhances serum levels of antibiotic. Probenecid enhances the renal excretion of urate by acting as a competitive inhibitor of OAT, which prevents OAT-mediated reuptake of uric acid from the urine to the serum. Probenecid is found to block acid metabolites from exiting the central nervous system, and is a competitive inhibitor of monoamine transport in the kidney, liver, and the eye.
    Animal modelMice
    Formulation & DosageIn order to obtain a dose response curve, male C57 WT (n=39) mice 12-16 weeks of age are anesthetized with isoflurane while intravenous jugular access (IV) is obtained under a microscope. Subsequently, an echocardiographic study with both M-mode and B-mode is obtained in parasternal long axis (PSLAX) as described below. Either saline or different doses of Probenecid (increasing from 2 to 200mg/kg) are injected (bolus IV) for the initial contractility studies in WT mice.
    ReferencesCell Calcium. 1989 Apr;10(3):171-80; Cardiovasc Toxicol. 2012 Mar;12(1):1-9. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 2012 Jul;53(1):134-44.

    These protocols are for reference only. InvivoChem does not independently validate these methods.


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