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    GW4064
    GW4064

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    This product is for research use only, not for human use. We do not sell to patients.
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    InvivoChem Cat #: V1841
    CAS #: 278779-30-9Purity ≥98%

    Description: GW4064 (GW-4064) is a novel, potent and selective agonist of farnesoid X receptor (FXR) (EC50 of 65 nM in CV1 cell line) with potential usefulness in the treatment of cholestatic liver disease. It displays no activity at other nuclear receptors, including the retinoic acid receptor, at concentrations up to 1 μM. GW-4064 upregulates adipokine expression in preadipocytes and HepG2 cells. GW4064 could reduce induction of proinflammatory cytokines by LPS in vitro. GW4064 shows beneficial effects on cholesterol and TG (triglycerides) in various animal species. GW4064 is found to lower serum TG levels in both the KK-Ay and ob/ob mice potently. In KK-Ay mice, a 1-week administration of GW4064 also significantly lowers VLDL secretion. GW4064 can also lower serum TGs in the SHP+/+ mice.

    References: Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2008 Aug 1;18(15):4339-43; J Med Chem. 2000 Aug 10;43(16):2971-4.

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    Molecular Weight (MW)542.84
    FormulaC28H22Cl3NO4
    CAS No.278779-30-9
    Storage-20℃ for 3 years in powder form
    -80℃ for 2 years in solvent
    Solubility (In vitro)DMSO: 100 mg/mL (184.2 mM)
    Water: <1 mg/mL
    Ethanol:<1 mg/mL
    Solubility (In vivo)0.5% methylcellulose: 11 mg/mL
    SynonymsGW-4064; GW4064; GW 4064


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    In Vitro

    In vitro activity: GW 4064 is a full agonist with EC50 values of 80 and 90 nM, respectively, in CV-1 cells transfected with mouse and human FXR expression vectors and an established reporter gene. There is no activity of GW 4064 on other nuclear receptors, including the retinoic acid receptor, at concentrations up to 1 μM. Thus, GW 4064 is a potent and selective nonsteroidal FXR agonist.


    Kinase Assay: GW 4064 is a potent FXR agonist with EC50 of 65 nM.


    Cell Assay: Mouse liver cells (BNL CL.2) are maintained in a humidified incubator under 5% CO2 at 37°C in Dulbecco's Modified Eagle's Medium (DMEM) supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS) and 1% Penicillin/Streptomycin. When cells are divided into six-well plates and reach ~90% confluence, sub-confluent cells are washed three times with phosphate buffered saline (PBS) and replaced with serum-free DMEM supplemented with 1% fatty acid-free BSA. Oleic acid (final concentration 500 μM) and GW4064 at various concentrations are added and incubated for 24 h. Cells are then fixed with 4% formaldehyde for Oil Red O staining or harvested for protein and western blot analysis.

    In VivoPharmacokinetic analysis in rats shows that GW 4064 possesses an oral bioavailability of 10% with a t1/2 = 3.5 h. Fisher rats are dosed with GW 4064 by oral gavage. After 7 days, a dose-dependent lowering of serum triglycerides is observed in the rats receiving GW 4064, with an ED50 = 20 mg/kg.
    Animal modelFisher rats 
    Formulation & DosageDissolved in 0.5% methyl cellulose; 0-100 mg/kg; Oral gavage
    ReferencesBioorg Med Chem Lett. 2008 Aug 1;18(15):4339-43; J Med Chem. 2000 Aug 10;43(16):2971-4.


    These protocols are for reference only. InvivoChem does not independently validate these methods.

    GW4064 (GW-4064) is a novel, potent and selective agonist of farnesoid X receptor (FXR) (EC50 of 65 nM in CV1 cell line) with potential usefulness in the treatment of cholestatic liver disease. It displays no activity at other nuclear receptors, including the retinoic acid receptor, at concentrations up to 1 μM. GW-4064 upregulates adipokine expression in preadipocytes and HepG2 cells. GW4064 could reduce induction of proinflammatory cytokines by LPS in vitro. GW4064 shows beneficial effects on cholesterol and TG (triglycerides) in various animal species. GW4064 is found to lower serum TG levels in both the KK-Ay and ob/ob mice potently. In KK-Ay mice, a 1-week administration of GW4064 also significantly lowers VLDL secretion. GW4064 can also lower serum TGs in the SHP+/+ mice.

    Farnesoid X receptor (FXR) is a bile acid-activated transcription factor that is a member of the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily. Fxr-null mice exhibit a phenotype similar to Byler disease, an inherited cholestatic liver disorder. In the liver, activation of FXR induces transcription of transporter genes involved in promoting bile acid clearance and represses genes involved in bile acid biosynthesis. We investigated whether the synthetic FXR agonist GW4064 could protect against cholestatic liver damage in rat models of extrahepatic and intrahepatic cholestasis. In the bile duct-ligation and alpha-naphthylisothiocyanate models of cholestasis, GW4064 treatment resulted in significant reductions in serum alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, and lactate dehydrogenase, as well as other markers of liver damage. Rats that received GW4064 treatment also had decreased incidence and extent of necrosis, decreased inflammatory cell infiltration, and decreased bile duct proliferation. Analysis of gene expression in livers from GW4064-treated cholestatic rats revealed decreased expression of bile acid biosynthetic genes and increased expression of genes involved in bile acid transport, including the phospholipid flippase MDR2. The hepatoprotection seen in these animal models by the synthetic FXR agonist suggests FXR agonists may be useful in the treatment of cholestatic liver disease.

    References: Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2008 Aug 1;18(15):4339-43; J Med Chem. 2000 Aug 10;43(16):2971-4; J Clin Invest. 2003 Dec;112(11):1678-87.


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