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    1-Azakenpaullone (1-Akp)
    1-Azakenpaullone (1-Akp)

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    This product is for research use only, not for human use. We do not sell to patients.
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    InvivoChem Cat #: V0224
    CAS #: 676596-65-9Purity ≥98%

    Description: 1-Azakenpaullone (1-Akp), an analog of kenpaullone, is a novel, ATP-competitive and selective inhibitor of GSK-3β (glycogen synthase kinase 3β) with potential antidiabetic and neuroprotective activities. It inhibits GSK-3β with an IC50 of 18 nM, and exhibits >100-fold selectivity for GSK-3β over CDK1/cyclin B and CDK5/p25. 

    References:J Med Chem. 2008 Apr 10;51(7):2196-207; Eur J Biochem. 2000 Oct;267(19):5983-94; J Biol Chem. 2007 Apr 20;282(16):12030-7.

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    Molecular Weight (MW)




    CAS No.



    -20℃ for 3 years in powder form

    -80℃ for 2 years in solvent

    Solubility (In vitro)

    DMSO: 10 mM

    Water: N/A

    Ethanol: N/A

    Solubility (In vivo)



    1 Azakenpaullone,9-bromo-7,12-dihydro-pyrido[3',2':2,3]azepino[4,5-b]indol-6(5H)-one; 

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    In Vitro

    In vitro activity: 1-Azakenpaullone inhibits the CDK1/cyclin B, CDK5/p25, and GSK-3β effectively, with IC50 of 0.018 μM, 4.2 μM, and 2.0 μM, respectively. In human islets, 1-Azakenpaullone (5 mM) in combination with glucose (8 mM) stimulates the β-cell proliferation. 1-Azakenpaullone effectively stimulates INS-1E cells replication and protects INS-1E cells against glucolipotoxicity-induced cell death.


    Kinase Assay: GSK-3β is assayed, following a 1/100 dilution in 1 mg BSA per mL 10 mM dithiothreitol, with 5 μL 40 μM GS-1 peptide as a substrate, in buffer A, in the presence of 15 μM [γ-32P]ATP (3000 Ci·mmol-1; 1 mCi·mL-1 ) in a final volume of 30 μL. After 30 min incubation at 30℃, 25 μL aliquots of supernatant are spotted onto 2.5×3 cm pieces of Whatman P81 phosphocellulose paper, and 20 s later, the filters are washed five times in a solution of 10 mL phosphoric acid per L of water. The wet filters are counted in the presence of 1 mL ACS scintillation fluid. The kinase activity of CDK1/cyclin B is assayed in buffer C, with 1 mg/mL histone H1, in the presence of 15 μM [γ-32P]ATP (3000 Ci·mmol-1; 1 mCi·mL-1 ) in a final volume of 30 μL. After 10 min incubation at 30℃, 25 μL aliquots of supernatant are spotted onto P81 phosphocellulose papers and treated as described above. The activity of CDK5/p25 is assayed in buffer C as described for CDK1/cyclin B. (Buffer A: 10 mM MgCl2 , 1 mM EGTA, 1 mM dithiothreitol, 25 mM Tris/HCl pH 7.5, 50 μg heparin/mL. Buffer C: homogenization buffer but 5 mM EGTA, no NaF and no protease inhibitors)


    Cell Assay: Cell replication is determined by BrdUrd incorporation after treatment with 1-Azakenpaullone for 24 h. The relative cell number is determined after treatment with 1-Azakenpaullone for 4 days using the CyQuant cell proliferation assay. Results are presented as fold change relative to control.

    In Vivo

    Pretreatment with 1-Azakenpaullone (10 or 100 pmol, i.c.v.) attenuates the ketamine-induced locomotor hyperactivity, disruption of PPI and cognitive deficits, and improves the ketamine-induced motor incoordination in rotarod test. 

    Animal model

     Male NMRI mice

    Formulation & Dosage

     Formulated in 1% DMSO in artificial cerebrospinal fluid (ACSF); ~500 pmol; i.c.v.


    Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2004, 14(2), 413-416.;  Diabetes. 2009, 58(3), 663-672.J Med Chem. 2008, 51(7), 2196-2207.

    These protocols are for reference only. InvivoChem does not independently validate these methods.


    Lithium and 1-Akp in combination with glucose stimulates β-cell proliferation in human islets.  2009 Mar;58(3):663-72.


    GSK-3 and mTOR signaling in human islets.  2009 Mar;58(3):663-72.


    Lithium- and 1-Akp–mediated promotion of cell cycle progression in human and rat islet cells is blocked by rapamycin.  2009 Mar;58(3):663-72.


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